|Title:||Effectiveness of interventions for the assessment and prevention of falls in adult psychiatric patients: A systematic review|
|Journal:||JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports|
|Abstract:||Background: Patient fall is among the top five sentinel events in hospitals due to the resultant functional loss and injury sustained. Precise fall risk assessment and prevention strategies are important components of a fall prevention program. Due to psychiatric conditions and medications, these patients may require a different fall management program compared to other patient populations. Objective: The objective of this review was to identify the best available evidence for the effectiveness of nursing fall risk assessment tools, interventions to reduce incidence of falls, and common risk factors of adult psychiatric patients who fall. Inclusion Criteria: Types of participants: Adults (19 to 64 years) diagnosed with mental illness Types of interventions: Evaluation of nursing fall risk assessment tools in adult psychiatric settings, and interventions, which minimised fall risk or fall rates. Types of outcome measures: Number of patient falls during hospitalisation was the main outcome. Types of studies: Primary quantitative studies published in English language. Search Strategy: The literature search sought published studies, and was limited to English language reports. There were no date restrictions applied to the search. Electronic databases searched included: CINAHL PubMed Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials PsycINFO ScienceDirect Scopus Web of Science Wiley‐InterScience ProQuest MedNar Methodological quality: Studies retrieved were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (JBI‐SUMARI). Data Extraction: Data including specific details about the methods, settings, purposes, populations, interventions, and outcomes significant to the review's objectives were extracted by two independent reviewers using standardised data extraction tools from JBI‐SUMARI. Results: Eleven studies were included in this review: three before‐and‐after studies, four descriptive studies, two case control studies and two cohort studies. Evidence with regards to the effectiveness of fall risk assessment tools and prevention strategies was inconclusive. Certain risk factors which were more frequently associated with falls included diagnoses of depression, bipolar disorder, and dementia / Alzheimer's disease, altered mental status, physiological symptoms, past history of falls, mobility and gait problems, concurrent medical conditions, polypharmacy, and taking of certain medications such as sedatives, antidepressants and mood stabilisers, particularly lithium. Conclusion: Evidence on the effectiveness of fall risk assessment tools and prevention strategies in psychiatric setting was inconclusive due to a paucity of studies. However, certain risk factors were found to be more commonly associated with falls in adult psychiatric patients (Level III Evidence). Implications for practice Constant observation of the side effects of medications, particularly orthostatic hypotension, and review of patients' medical profile by doctors or pharmacists may be helpful in preventing falls in psychiatric patients. Findings on common risk factors can better aid healthcare professionals in identifying psychiatric patients who are at risk for falls. Implications for research More research is needed on the evaluation of fall risk assessment tools and fall prevention strategies, specifically for the adult psychiatric patients. More prospective and better quality studies examining fall risk factors in psychiatric patients are needed.|
|Appears in Collections:||2012|
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